A HOUSE DIVIDED – The ROAD to CIVIL WAR
SYNOPSIS

1)Abraham Lincoln’s famous quote about the issue of slavery in the United States stated: “A House divided cannot stand against itself.”

2)The Tenth Amendment stated that powers not delegated to the national government were reserved to the STATES or to the PEOPLE.

[To what extent was the nation “UNITED”?;

to what extent was it a collection of “STATES’?]

3)COTTON became the leading economic product and export in the United States.

Cheap labor was in demand to raise this crop.

4)The Compromise of 1820 kept “balance” in the Senate between “slave” and “free” states by adding Missouri as a “slave” state and Maine as a “free” state.

5)The Nullification Crisis was created by southern resentment over national tariffs (taxes) on imports. (that benefited “northern” industries) South Carolina threatened secession. (leaving the Union). A compromise stopping war was reached.

6)”Manifest Destiny” was the idea that American “civilization” ( democracy and prosperity ) was “destined” to expand from Atlantic to Pacific Oceans.

7)The Mexican-American War (1846-48) started over the annexation (adding) of Texas to the United States in 1845. U.S. victory led to the “acquisition” of California, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona and and Colorado.

8)The new territories of the United States raised the issue of the expansion of slavery into these new lands.

9)California entry into the Union (1850) would upset the balance between
“slave” and “free” states.

10)The Compromise of 1850 stated that a new Federal Fugitive Slave Act “ensured” that runaway slaves were sent back to their owners.

11)Outrage over the Fugitive Slave Act led to Harriet Beecher Stowe to write the anti- slavery book Uncle Tom’s Cabin .

It helped turn national opinion against the spread of slavery in the west.

12) The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) proposed that elections in the new territories decide and determine the issue of the spread of slavery.

13)Popular Sovereignty (voting) led to the outbreak of civil war in Kansas
between “pro” and “anti” slavery forces. (This was a “civil” war before The Civil War.) “Democracy” would not adequately solve the issue of the spread of slavery.

14)The Supreme Court decided in the Dred Scott Case (1857) that he had no rights as a citizen. Scott was considered legally to be “property”.

15)The Dred Scott Case showed that the Judicial Branch would not
adequately solve the issue of the spread of slavery for both sides.

16)Radical anti-slavery “abolitionist” John Brown led an armed “raid” in 1859 on a Federal Amrory in Virginia. He hoped to free the slaves, who would violently overthrow their slave masters.

17)To Southerners, John Brown symbolized northern tyranny, violence and a bloody slave revolution that would destroy their way of life .

18)To Northerners, John Brown was a “martyr” for a “just cause”.

19)Abraham Lincoln was elected President in 1860.

A “Republican”, he and his political party were against the spread of slavery. They felt it should be allowed to continue where it already existed.

20) Reacting against “northern domination” and “conspiracy” to eventually destroy slavery, 11 southern states seceded (left) from the Union to form
“The Confederacy.”

21)Southerners felt it was within their “states rights” to leave the Union of States.

22)Northern “pro-Union” forces argued that the American people had created the Union. Therefore, it should be the decision of all the American
people whether or not the Union should be broken up.

CONCLUSIONS:

23)As President, Lincoln felt it was his CONSTITUTIONAL DUTY to SAVE the UNION at any cost.

24)Lincoln did not accept the legality of Southern Secession.

25)The Civil War became a matter of federal authority over that of states rights.

[To what extent was the nation UNITED?

To what extent was the nation STATES?]

26)Lincoln initially did not necessarily intend to end slavery – “If I could save the union without freeing ANY slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing ALL slaves, I would do it.

He wanted to END its SPREAD.

27)Lincoln’s “Emancipation Proclamation” (1863) freed only slaves held in the south.

It did not free slaves held in pro-Union “border states”.

28)Yet, the war was indirectly caused over the issue of slavery. Why fight a bloody war and not settle the issue once and for all?

29)Lincoln would state in his “GETTYSBURG ADDRESS” (1863):
“Four Score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth …
a new nation conceived in liberty.”

30)”…and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.”

31)[in Gettysburg to memorialize the 46,000+ war dead]
“…these dead shall not have died in vain; …we have come to dedicate
a final resting place for those that gave their lives that that nation might live.”, that this nation, under God, shall have a “new birth of freedom”.

32)”…that government of, … for and by the people shall not perish.” (die)

33)The 13th Amendment to the Federal Constitution passed in 1865 ended
(involuntary) slavery.

34)The 14th Amendment (1868) promised “due process” and equal protection before the LAW to all citizens.

35)The 15th Amendment (1870) promised a citizen’s right to VOTE could not be denied on the grounds of race.

The UNION was PRESERVED …

BUT the WAR CONTINUES …

FOR GOVERNMENT OF…, FOR and BY [ALL] the PEOPLE