PUT the FOLLOWING IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER – A (first), B (second), etc.
Part One – EARLY RUSSIAN HISTORY…
___1)The Mongols helped change early Russian history, conquering it, terrorizing it, exploiting it and ruling autocratically, with “an iron fist”
___2)The Princes of Moscow, autocratic rulers over Russia, take the title “Czar” (from the Roman/Latin “Caesar”)
___3)The Romanov Family inherits the title of “Czar”, beginning their dynastic rule in 1613, holding power until 1917.
_A_4)In early Russian history, small city-states with a relatively free class of farmers made up society.
___5)The Princes of Moscow used the Mongols to increase their own power over the other Russian city-states; Moscow would lead the overthrow of the Mongols, but continue to rule “autocratically”.. (power in one self or person)
Part Two – RUSSIAN EXPANSION and REFORM …
_A_6)Geographically isolated, Peter the Great expands the Russian Empire, reaching the Black Sea in the south and the Baltic Sea in the north
___7)Alexander II, building on Peter the Great’s attempt to reform and modernize a “backwards” Russia, officially ends serfdom in 1861
___8)Peter the Great’s “westernization” does little to effect the condition of
the great majority of poor serf farmers tied to feudal burdens.
___9)Ending Russia’s geographic isolation, Peter the Great visits the West and hopes to end it’s cultural isolation and “backwardness” ; Peter adopts western technological and cultural innovations
___10)Nicholas II assumes the throne after the assassination of Czar Alexander III; Nicholas attempts limited reform , creating an elected parliament (Duma), which exercises little real power.
Part Three – MARXIST REVOLUTIONARIES and The GREAT WAR…
___11) Russia enters the Great War, unprepared and overmatched against the Germans. The war becomes highly unpopular with the Russian people. The Germans Send Lenin into Russia, hoping his return will add to the turmoil within Russia and hinder their war effort and eventual surrender.
___12)Lenin and his Marxist Revolutionary “Bolsheviks” seek power after returning to St. Petersburg by promising the Russian people land, bread and peace
_A_13)In 1848, Marx and Engels publish the Communist Manifesto, calling for a worldwide revolution of the working class (proletariat), the eventual destruction of capitalism and creation of a “classless” society.
___14)Lenin is expelled from Russia for spreading anti-Czarist Marxist Revolution. For the next 17 years (until 1917), Lenin works against Czarist Rule from outside Russia, in Europe.
___15) In the 1890s, Marxist Revolutionaries, led by Lenin, seek to overthrow the Czar
and create a “dictatorship of the proletariat” in Russia and the world.
Part Four BOLSHEVIK TAKEOVER and CIVIL WAR…
___16)The Bolsheviks, led by Lenin and Trotsky, overthrow the Provisional
Government of Kerensky and seize power in St. Petersburg.
_A_17)Massive military defeats in the Great War, discontent and hunger of the people, and weakness of the Czar lead to rioting. Czar Nicholas abdicated (leaves) the throne in 1917.
___18)After exiting the Great War, Civil War breaks out between Marxist Bolsheviks and anti-Bolshevik “whites”. Lenin and the Bolsheviks eventually crush all opposition to their rule in Russia
___19) After Czar Nicholas abdicates, a Provisional Government under Kerensky takes power. The Provisional Government continues the war against Germany.
___20)After seizing power, Lenin quickly negotiates a peace treaty with Germany
Part Five The “SOVIET UNION” …
___21)Lenin, leader of the new “Soviet Union”, suffers a stroke and dies two years later. A power struggle between Red Army leader Trotsky and Political leader Stalin ensues.
___22)Stalin wins the power struggle with Trotsky, who is eventually forcibly exiled
_A_23)After achieving complete power, Lenin and the Bolsheviks form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, (U.S.S.R. or Soviet Union) a collection of republics ruled by Communists.
___24)After Lenin’s death, he leaves a letter which states Stalin is too “rude” and“impatient” to become the Soviet Leader.
___25)Bolshevik leaders, not trusting a potentially “dictatorial” Trotsky, maintain Stalin as the leader.
Part Six – STALINIST MODERNIZATION and “TOTALITARIANISM”…
___26)In order to pay for the industrialization of Soviet society, Stalin “confiscates” and sells food to outside nations, while millions of the Soviet people starve
___27)Stalin persecutes peasant farmer “kulaks” who resist his collectivization program; millions are executed or deported to Siberia
_A_28)Stalin to “modernize” Russia by industrializing it; five year plans are
adopted by the centralized government
___29)After establishing power over industry and agriculture,
Stalin total political control.
___30)Stalin used the murder of Kirov to “purge” the Communist Party of those “traitors” to Party “progress” under Stalin
Part Seven WORLD WAR and “SUPERPOWER”. …
___31)Initially overwhelmed by the Nazi “blitzkrieg” invasion , the Soviets came back to counter-attack and crush the Nazis
___32)Militarily vulnerable, Stalin signs a “non-aggression” pact with Hitler and the Nazis in 1938.
___33)Despite signing a “non-aggression” pact, the Nazis invade Russia in 1941; Without effective military leadership, the Russians experience a military disaster.
___34)Stalin’s Soviet Union becomes a world “superpower” after defeating the Nazis in World War Two
_A_35)Beginning in the mid-1930s, Stalin “purges” (eliminates) his military of its top-tier leadership, leaving the Soviet Union militarily vulnerable.