IMPERIALISM – The BRITISH and INDIA
1)The British East India Company began trading in India in the early 1600s.
2)British power rose as Mughal (“Mongol” Muslims from central Asia) rule declined. Indians were unable to unite against either group of foreign “outsiders”.
3)This “private” East India Company business was so successful, it eventually was able to take control of India, which became ‘the “Jewel in the Crown” of the British Empire
4)The British conquered India by exploiting its diversity, encouraging competition and division between Indians. historically fragmented by language, religion, culture and geography.
5)When either diplomacy or “divide and conquer” did not work, the British used their superior weaponry.
6)The main interest of the East India Company was profit in prosperous India. Britain saw India as both a source of raw materials for their industry and a market to sell their factory made goods.
7)The company also worked to improve communicatons, preserve order and reduce crime. A road and railroad system helped unify geographically large and diverse India. Ironically, the British helped create a unified “India”.
8)The improved “modern” transportation system moved goods more easily moved.
After the Suez Canal in Egypt opened in 1869, British-Indian trade soared as part of an increasingly “global” economy.
9)The British also transformed Indian agriculture. Food output increased as previously nomadic farmers worked on more efficient larger farms, introducing “modern” farming techniques..
10)Some Indians land owners grew rich from growing “cash” crops such as cotton, jute and opium. Indian cotton helped feed the textile factories of England. India’s traditional clothing industry was destroyed as a result of cheaper, machine made clothing.
11)More food and better medical care caused the Indian population to rise significantly.
12)The larger population and growth of cash crops would occasionally put a burden on the food supply. Indian experienced periodic famines during the late 1800s.
13)British officials worked to end slavery and the Indian caste system, This system
divided all society into four groups, based on your birth.
14)The British also tried to ban the Indian practice of sati, the ritual burning of
widowed women. The Indian practice of purdah called for strict isolation and
separation of women from men.
15)The British introduced western education and changed the legal system to promote “equal” justice, regardless of caste or class.
16)British rule was not without negative reactions from the Indians. For high caste sepoys (Indian soldiers), forced over-seas travel was a religious affront .
The East India Company passed a law that allowed Hindu widows to re-marry.
Hindus believed both moves were a conspiracy to undermine their
17)The British introduced technologically superior rifles that required the elite Indian “Sepoy” soldiers to bite off bullet cartridges greased with animal fat. Cow grease
offended Hindus, who considered cows sacred. Pig grease offended Muslim
Sepoys. This situation led to an armed rebellion by the Sepoys.
18)The Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 spread across northern and central India. Although
rebellion became widespread, there was little unity among the rebels.
19)There were calls for “jihad” sy some Muslims leaders. Sunni Muslims did not want Shiite rule, so they often refused to join a perceived Shia Rebellion. Some Muslims supported the British, who “protected” them from the Hindu majority.
20)When the British counter attacked, the Sepoys were handicapped by their lack of a centralized command. Sepoys marched to Delhi, the old capital, and called the last Mughal ruler as their leader.
21)Britons were brutally massacred. The British took revenge by torching villages and slaughtering thousands of Indians.
22)The Britiah slowly rallied and crushed the revolt.
23)The end of the war was followed by the execution of a vast majority of Indian combatants. Large numbers of civilians perceived as being sympathetic to the rebel cause were also executed.
24)The punishments were considered appropriate and justified in a Britain shocked by reports about atrocities carried out on Europeans
25)The Sepoy Rebellion left a bitter legacy of fear, hate and distrust on both sides. Millions died. It was the largest “rebellion” in world history.
26)Control of India was taken from the East India Company. A British “Viceroy” then governed in the name of the Queen.
27)The British used “indirect” rule to control India. British officials held the top positions in the military and government. Indians filled most other jobs.
28)The children of the Indian upper classes were sent to British schools, which trained them for jobs in government and the military. British rule reinforced the “hierarchal” nature of Indian society.
Britain & India – CONCLUSIONS
29)The British felt the modernizing of India was mutually beneficial for both British and Indians. Of course, the British benefited more from this arrangement.
30)Indian Ram Mohun Roy symbolized the “mixed” reaction by most Indians to the British.
31)Roy felt that India could learn and benefit from the west. Roy founded an
English-style school for Indians.
32)Roy saw the merits of western civilization, seeking to reform traditional Indian culture. Roy condemned India’s social caste system, child marriage, sati, and purdah.
33)Roy also helped revive pride in Indian culture. He is often called the founder of Indian nationalism.
34)The elite class of British educated Indians, schooled in western ideals such as democracy and equality, would eventually lead India to independence in 1947.
35)Today, India is the world’s largest democracy.
Its “national” sport is cricket.
10-4.2 Imperialism: CHINA and the WEST – SYNOPSIS
1)Before the 1800s, China limited trade with foreigners. China enjoyed a trade surplus, exporting more than it imported.
The Chinese generally considered outside civilizations as being inferior or “barbarian”.
2)This balance of power would change. Chinese imperial power was increasingly ineffective and in decline.
Western modernization would lead to increased influence and domination.
3)Lacking anything the Chinese desired, the British traded Indian opium with the Chinese.
Silver flowed out of China to pay for this highly addictive drug, disrupting the Chinese economy and society.
4)The Chinese government outlawed opium and executed Chinese drug dealers.
The Chinese government called on Britain to stop the trade.
5)In 1839, Chinese warships clashed with British merchants. In retaliation, the British navy, armed with modern weaponry, bombarded Chinese ports and easily defeated the Chinese navy. British land forces, supported by Indian Sepoy soldiers. Defeated Chinese army forces.
6)After Chinese military defeat, the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing gave the British the port city of Hong Kong and opened five other ports to western nations. British citizens in China were given the right to live under their own laws and customs.
This unequal treaty was the first to force China to make concessions to western powers.
7)Floods, food shortages and famines and corrupt government led to the
“Taiping Rebellion” from 1850 to 1864. Over 20 to 30 million Chinese died during the conflict.
8)Chinese and Western interaction occurred in both directions. Many Chinese emigrated to the U,S,, many helping to build American railroads. Christian missionaries were allowed to preach in China
9)The Chinese were divided over the need to adapt to western ways.
10)Most Chinese saw no reason for new economic innovations because China’s wealth
had come from the land. Why change centuries-old Chinese culture for that of “barbarian” outsiders?
11)Western ideas challenged traditional Chinese/“Confucian” values.
Culturally, Confucian (group) harmony and conformity to “order” challenged western individuality and freedom of “non-conformity”.and “opportunity”
12)Socially, Confucian “hierarchy” (a “pyramid” of superiors/inferiors) challenged western social egalitarianism.(equality)
13)Politically, Educated officials schooled in Confucianism ran Chinese government in the name of the emperor
Elected representatives ran western government in the name of “the people”.
14)Chinese government sought harmony and order. The “Mandate of Heaven” was the idea that as long as emperor brought “good” rule that benefited all of society, the people were to serve the emperor with obedience. It sought to avoid anarchy or chaos.
15)Western democracy was often “messy” and chaotic. Dividing power to prevent tyranny, “Good” government was meant to serve “the people”. (popular sovereignty)
16)Reverence for “manners” (group harmony) characterized Chinese society.
Western ideal of individual “rights” were often seen as being rude and obnoxious.
17)In the 1860s, reformers launched a “self-strengthening” movement. They
imported western technologies, adopting machines and weapons making.
18)The Chinese developed ship building, railroads and light industry.
They translated western literature on science, government and the economy.
19)These reforms were limited because the government did not rally behind them.
20)Unlike the Chinese, the Japanese decided on “full-scale” modernization after 1868. (the Meiji Reform) They would became a dominant power in Asia.
21)European powers moved quickly to carve out “spheres of influence”,
sections of China in which they would have “exclusive” rights of trade.
22)The U.S. feared that the European “spheres” would shut out American trade.
The U.S. called for open trade (an “Open Door”) for all nations everywhere in China, on an equal basis.
23)Nobody consulted the Chinese regarding the spheres or open door policy.
24)The Chinese were conflicted over how to deal with foreign involvement.
“Conservatives” sought to maintain traditional Confucian values.
25)Reformers sought to modernize China, as Japan had. They accused
conservatives of dwelling on China’s past.
26)Foreign soldiers were stationed in China. Some Chinese reacted against this with “xenophobia” (fear of the outsider) In 1899, a group which called itself “Righteous Harmony Fists” sought to drive out the “foreign devils.”
27)In 1900, the “Boxers” attacked and killed foreigners across China. An International military force (including U.S. Marines) was assembled to rescue foreigners and crush the Boxer Rebellion.
China once again had to make concessions to foreigners.
28)Boxer defeat forced conservatives to support reform and modernization.
29)Educational reforms allowed Chinese women to attend schools.
Math and science was emphasized, instead of Confucianism.
30)A reformer named Sun Yat-sen sought to modernize China. His parents were poor farmers. He lived with his brother in Hawaii in his teen years. He attended American and British schools. He later earned a medical degree.
31)Sun was exiled after revolutionary actitivies against the imperial Chinese government,
32)Sun returned from exile, seeking to modernize China with a “three step/” program.
First, Sun called for Chinese nationalism, freeing China from foreign domination.
Second, he called for democracy or “representative” government/ Third, he sought “livelihood” – economic prosperity for all Chinese.
Most Chinese were poor, peasant farmers.
33)In 1908, a two-year old inherited the Chinese imperial Qing Dynasty throne.
China slipped into chaos without effective imperial government rule.
34)Peasants, students, regional “warlords” and local politicians helped overthrow the imperial Qing Dynasty.
35)Sun Yat-sen became president of a new Chinese republic in December, 1911.
Unfortunately, Chinese democracy would devolve into chaos.
36)China would be at war with itself or foreign invaders (e.g. Japan) for the
next forty years.
10-4.3 Imperialism: JAPAN and the WEST – SYNOPSIS
1)From the 1600s, Japan existed in almost total international isolation. Japanese ports were closed to all but a few Chinese and European (Portuguese and Dutch) traders.
2)In 1633, Shogun Iemitsu forbade traveling abroad. All foreign books were banned.
WESTERN INDUSTRIALIZATION & EXPANSION
3)Meanwhile, the West was industrializing through the use of “modern” technologies. Mass Production created a need for raw materials and markets to sell goods.
4)Industrialization brought increased “globalization”. The world was becoming more “connected” and “interdependent”. What happened in one area of the world effected other parts.
5)During the 1800s, the U.S. whaling fleet dominated the world whaling industry.
In 1846, it involved 735 vessels (80% of world’s whaling fleet); 70,000 were
employed and $70,000,000 in property -10,000 whales were caught.
6)Whale oil was a high quality oil and lubricant used on machines. It also was used to make high quality, smokeless and odorless candles. Ambergis from whale intestines was used in the production of perfumes.
COMMODORE PERRY “OPENS” JAPAN (1853) – Part One
7)In addition to the Japanese market, America needed Japanese ports to replenish coal and other supplies for their commercial whaling fleet. In 1852, U.S. Naval Commodore Matthew Perry was given the task of opening isolationist Japan to trade.
8) On July 8, 1853 four black American naval warships anchored at Edo (Tokyo) Bay Perry presented papers from the U.S. government, requesting protection for ship wrecked American seamen, the right to buy coal, and the opening of ports to trade.
9)The Japanese ordered the Americans to go to the southern port of Nagasaki, the only port open to foreigners, but Perry firmly declined.
10)The Japanese had never seen steamships, calling them “giant dragons puffing smoke.“ They were shocked by the number and size of the guns on the ships.
11)The Japanese considered Westerners “barbarians” Though not an industrial country, Japanese society was complex.
The Japanese, borrowing from Confucian Chinese culture, stressed honor, morals, education and hierarchal order and harmony.
12)A sophisticated arts and culture flourished in Japan under a highly structured feudal government and class system.
The Japanese lived under rules that governed
every aspect of their lives, according to a person’s inherited status.
13)The Emperor was the head of the class system and Japan’s religious leader, but exercised no real political power.
The Shogun was the power behind the throne.
14)The Shogun was the military leader who ruled the country by creating the laws and rules of conduct. He was not subject to these laws.
15)Daimyos (lords) were landowners who were heavily regulated by the Shogun.
16)Samurai were fierce warriors and also local village leaders of farmers, artisans and
merchants. Samurai depended on his Daimyo for a small salary.
17)Farmers were 80% of Japan’s population. Most lived below the poverty
level, their quality of life determined by the amount of rice grown.
COMMODORE PERRY “OPENS” JAPAN (1853) – Part Two
18)Perry negotiated for several months with Japanese officials to open the doors of trade. Perry then left to China, to give the Japanese time to consider. He returned in February, 1854, with more warships and troops.
19)Perry’s show of pomp, ceremony and power impressed the insecure Shogun.
The Japanese realized that their country could not effectively defend their
isolation against the Americans without risking war. The Japanese were aware of
Chinese military defeat against Britain in the Opium Wars a decade earlier.
20)On March 31, 1854, Japan and the U.S. signed an historic treaty of “peace” and
“friendship”. The Japanese and Americans had a celebratory feast.
Perry broke down barriers that separated Japan from the rest of the world.
21)Today, the Japanese celebrate Perry’s expedition with annual “black ship
festivals”. The Tokugawa Shogun was criticized and ultimately overthrown for not defending Japan against the West.
The “MEIJI” REVOLUTION (1867 – )
22)In 1867, fifteen-year old Mutsuhito began the 45-year reign of Emperor “Meiji” (the name 年号 means “Period of Enlightened Rule”).
He decided that in order to withstand the forces of the West, Japan would need to adopt western ways.
23)Governing on the Emperor’s behalf, Japan’s reformers implemented radical changes to “catch up” with the West.
Unlike China, Japan sought change on a massive scale.
24)Feudalism was abandoned in favor of a written constitution and the establishment of modern mechanized military.
25)An international search for “knowledge to strengthen the foundations of Imperial Rule” began. Modernized Japan rose to become a world power in a relatively short time.
26)There were two reasons for the speed of Japan’s modernization – the employment of over 3,000 foreign experts and sending many Japanese students to study in the West.
27)This process of modernization was closely monitored and heavily subsidized and managed by the Meiji government. Japan emerged from the Tokugawa-Meiji transition as the first industrialized nation in Asia.
28)Japan would borrow selectively from the West. The U.S. was the inspiration for Japan’s banking system. They also adopted the American governmental system with “checks and balances” to limit power. Baseball became its national sport.
29)From France, Japan adopted a powerful government bureacracy.
30)From Britain, Japan borrowed it’s parliamentary government system (ministers led by a “Prime Minister”) and used Britain’s historically superior navy as its model.
31)From Prussia (Germany), Japan borrowed it’s legal system, army and
educational system. Also, they borrowed Prussia’s “corporate” (industrial)
structure – close collaboration between government and industry.
32)Huge industrial bodies called “zaibatsu” embarked on massive industrial growth. Started by the government, they were bought by rich families. (e.g. Mitsui & Mitsubishi)
33)“Wakon Yosai!” was the slogan of reform – “Japanese Spirit, Western Learning”
34)They believed that “foreign” technologies were best used in the service of becoming “Japanese”, absorbing foreign influences without sacrificing “Japanese-ness”.
35)Through modernization, the Japanese resisted domination by western imperial nations.
They set out to practice imperialism themselves, defeating China in 1894, taking control of the island of Taiwan and dominating the Korean peninsula.
In 1894-95 the Japanese engaged the Chinese in the Sino-Japanese War as they sought natural resources and trading rights on mainland Asia
Imperial motives also brought them into conflict with Russia in the 1904-05 Russo-Japanese War.
The destruction of the Russian Navy by the Japanese marked the first time an Asian nation had defeated one from Europe Japan surprised the world by achieving victory in both conflicts
The JAPANESE RESENTED AMERICAN “INTERFERENCE” in the MATTER
TREATY of PORTSMOUTH
Japan was quickly emerging as a world-class power using western technology and methods while still maintaining its traditional cultural values
SEEKING RAW MATERIALS FOR ITS INDUSTRY, JAPAN EXPANDED INTO ASIA
JAPANESE EXPANSION BROUGHT IT INTO CONFLICT WITH AMERICAN and BRITISH IMPERIAL CLAIMS in ASIA and the PACIFIC
JAPAN INVADED MANCHURIA, NORTHERN CHINA in 1931
The JAPANESE “RAPE of NANKING” LED TO ECONOMIC SANCTIONS by the WEST AGAINST JAPAN
CRITICAL METAL and OIL SANCTIONS LED TO POTENTIAL CRIPPLING of JAPAN’S AMBITIONS
A SURPRISE STRIKE on PEARL HARBOR WAS BE A DECISIVE BLOW AGAINST AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT in the PACIFIC and ASIA
The JAPANESE ALSO INFLICTED the BIGGEST DEFEAT and SURRENDER of U.S. ARMY FORCES in the PHILLIPINES (20,000+)
The forcible transfer of 90,000 to 100,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war characterized by wide-ranging physical abuse, murder, savagery …
AMERICAN GENERAL escaped the PHILIPPINES MACARTHUR, VOWING TO RETURN
MACARTHUR RETURNED VICTORIOUSLY AGAINST the JAPANESE to the PHILIPPINES
It was MacArthur who formally received the Japanese surrender in September 19, 1945 MACARTHUR WOULD BECOME THE DE FACTO “RULER” of POST-WAR JAPAN THE EMPEROR”S POSITION WAS MAINTAINED, THOUGH E HAD NO REAL POWER
Macarthur responsible for overseeing the reconstruction of Japan and creating the constitution promulgated in 1946.
MACARTHUR WAS VIEWED WITH ADMIRATION BY MANY JAPANESE FOR THE SUCCESSFUL REBUILDING of THEIR COUNTRY
LOOKING BACK, WAS PERRY’S “FORCED” OPENING BENEFICIAL (excepting WWII, “peace” & “prosperity) for BOTH the U.S. and JAPAN?